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  1. I've been looking for a good reference on required UV zap dose required to eradicate various pathogens, and I found this great whitepaper from Siemens Corporation. The doses are in J/M^3. Multiple by 0.1 to get the fluence in mJ/cm^2. These are the values for log-1 reduction, or 90% reduction. For log-3 reduction (99.9%), multiple the fluence by 3. The dosage is higher than I have seen in other literature, so I tend to believe these numbers. Just to show how tough some of these buggers are, Chilodonella cyprini requires 30,000 J/m^3, or 3000 mJ/cm^2, or 3,000,000 uW-sec/cm^2 to reduce 99.9%. In other words, not practical to kill with UV Most UV units report the fluence for a given flow rate in uWsec/cm^2. Just multiply the doses by 300 to get the log-3 reduction dose in uW-sec/cm^2. Bacteria Corynebacterium diphteriae 20-40 Aeromonas 50 Dysentery bacilli 20-30 Aeromonas salmonicida 10 Eberthella typhosa 10-30 Agrobacterium tumefaciens 30-50 Encephalitozoon cuniculi 40-50 Bacillus anthracis, vegetative 30-50 Encephalitozoon hellem 60 Bacillus anthracis, spore 90 Encephalitozoon intestinalis 20 Bacillus enteritidis 40 Enterobacteria, in general 10-60 Enterobacter cloacae 30-80 Bacillus megaterium, vegetative 10-20 Enterocolitica faecium 50-60 Bacillus megaterium, spore 10-50 Bacillus mesentericus fascus, veg. 60 Escherichia coli laboratory isolate 20 Escherichia coli wild isolate 30-100 Bacillus mesentericus fascus, spore 90 Escherichia coli ATCC 11299 20-70 Bacillus paratyphosis 30-40 Escherichia coli ATCC 23958 20-50 Bacillus prodigiosus 10 Escherichia coli NCTC 5934 20-50 Bacillus pyocyaneus 40 Escherichia coli NCIB 9481 20-50 Bacillus stearothermophilus, spore 600-1800 Escherichia coli in air 10-30 Bacillus subtilis, vegetative 60-80 Fusobacterium nucleatum 10-30 Bacillus subtilis, spore 50-120 Bacillus subtilis Sawamura, vegetative 70 Klebsiella pneumoniae 30-80 Bacillus subtilis Sawamura, spore 110 Legionella bozemanii 20 Bacterium coli 50-60 Legionella dumofii 30 Branhamella catarrhalis 30-40 Legionella gormanii 20-30 Citrobacter freundii 20 Legionella longbeachae 10-20 Clostridia, in general 130 Legionella micdadei 10-20 Clostridium botulinum 120 Legionella pneumophila 20-50 Clostridium tetani 50-130 Leptospira canicola 30 Feline calicivirus 70-80 Leptospira interrogans 20 Hepatitis A virus 40 Leptospira spp. 20-30 Hepatitis B virus 30-110 Listeria monocytogenes 30-40 Infectious hepatitus virus 50-80 Micrococcus candidus 60-70 Influenza virus 20-40 Micrococcus luteus 100-260 IHN-virus 20 Micrococcus lysodeikticus 230 ILA-virus 40 Micrococcus piltoniensis 60-80 IPN-virus 1200 Micrococcus radiodurans 200-500 MS2 coliphage 190-280 Micrococcus sphaeroides 100-160 Poliovirus 30-70 Mycobacterium smegmatis 50-80 Poliovirus 1 70-110 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 50-60 Poliovirus 2 120 Neisseria catarrhalis 40-50 Poliovirus 3 100 Phytomonas tumefaciens 30-40 Staphylococcus aureus phage A994 100 Proteus vulgaris 10-40 Reovirus 1 150-160 Pseudomonas aerogunosa, lab isolate 10-20 Rotavirus 60 Pseudomonas aerogunosa, wild isolate 50-60 Rotavirus SA11 60-90 Pseudomonas fluorescens 30-40 Tabacco mosaic virus 750 Pseudomonas tumefatiens 40-50 Rhodospirillum rubrum 50-60 Moulds Salmonella enteritidis 40-80 Aspergilus amstelodami 660-700 Salmonella paratyphi 30-60 Aspergillus flavus 400-1000 Salmonella typhi 10-40 Aspergillus glaucus 440 Salmonella typhimurium 40-80 Aspergillus niger 440-1320 Salmonella typhosa 10-60 Cladosporium herbarum 300-700 Sarcina lutea 200-260 Fungi from manure, soil 1200 Serratia marcescens 10-30 Fusarium 250-350 Shigella dysenteriae 10-40 Mucor mucedo 500-700 Shigella flexneri 10-20 Mucor racemosus A 170 Shigella paradysenteriae 10-30 Mucor racemosus B 170 Shigella sonnei 20-30 Mucor ramosissimus 170 Spirillum rubrum 40-50 Olpidium 350 Staphylococcus albus 20-30 Oospara lactis 50 Staphylococcus aureus 20-30 Penicillium chrysogenum 300-500 Staphylococcus haemolyticus 60-70 Penicillium digitatum 290-1000 Staphylococcus opidermidis 20 Penicillium expansum 130 Streptococcus faecalis 40-50 Penicillium roqueforti 130 Streptococcus haemolyticus 20-90 Phytophtora 350 Streptococcus lactis 60-90 Pythium 350 Streptococcus pyogenes 20-30 Rhizopus nigricans 1100-2000 Streptococcus salivarius 20 Scopulariopsis brevucaulis 300-800 Streptococcus viridans 20-30 Verticillium 350 Tuberculosis bacillus 100 Vibrio anguillarum 30 Yeasts Vibrio cholerae wild isolate 20-50 Vibrio comma 30-40 Bakers yeast 40 Vibrio salmonicida 30-40 Brewers yeast 100 Yersinia enterocolitica 30-80 Cake yeast 40-50 Yersinia ruckeri 10-20 Gunger yeast 190 Pichia 350 Viruses Saccharomyces carlsbergensis 100 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 60 Adenovirus type 3 10-20 Saccharomyces ellipsoideus 40-60 Adenovirus type 40 520-550 Saccharomyces sake 80-90 Bacteriophage (E.coli virus) 20-30 Saccharomyces turpidans 90 Coliphage 10-40 Saccharomyces uvarum 30-40 Coxsackie virus A9 120 Saccharomyces willianus 340 Coxsackie virus B1 150-160 Torula spaerica 20-30 Echovirus 1 110 Yeast, in general 40-60 Echovirus 11 120 Enterovirus 40-350 Protozoa Acanthamoeba castellinii 340 Chorella vulgarus 70-140 Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst 20 Giardia lamblia, cyst 20 Giardia muris 20 Nematoda 1150-1350 Nematoda eggs 310-510 Paramecium species 640-2000 Algae Blue algea 3000-6000 Chlorella vulgaris 140 Green algea 3000-6000 Phytoplankton 350-1000 Diatoms 450 Flagellates 700-750 Dinoflagellates 1000-1500 Microorganisms at fisheries Chilodonella cyprini 10000 Cryptcaryon irritans 8000 Fungi (typical) 240 Ichthyophthirius species 1000-3360 Ichthyophthirius (white spot) 400 Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) 600 Oodinium ocellatum 350 Paramecium species 2000 Saprolegnia species 100-350 Sarcina lutea 270 Trichodina nigra 1590 Viral hemorrhagic sepricaemia (VHS) 100
  2. I'm not sure if this is on the right area. Move if needed. I was wondering, how many watts would I need to kill parasites (especially ick) in let's say 600 gallons of water? And what would be the best GPH for it? Thanks!
  3. I was exploring the idea of getting a UV sterilizer for my new 60gal and Tithra suggested I look into the Green Killing Machine as a cost-effective solution. Does anyone who owns one have anything to chip in about them? I would need the 100gal one, not the 50gal one obviously. I want to know if the pump is loud, how exactly it is set up (because I've never seen a UV in real life!), where to get it the cheapest, etc. Thank you!
  4. I recently added an Emperor Smart UV 25 watt UV sterilizer to my tank. This is just a quick general review of it This UV was ordered from goldfish connection: http://www.goldfishc...ctId=40&catId=1 When you order from goldfish connection the unit comes with a pump that is (according to them) the proper flow rate, which is nice because this is something that can affect the effectiveness of a sterilizer greatly. It also comes with all the plumbing parts to hook the pump to etc. It is relatively large (3 inches around and maybe about 30 inches long... sorry I didn't measure ), but this is good because it means that more water can come in contact with the light which makes it more effective than a smaller unit. I don't find that it creates any noticeable extra current in my tank and there is no noticeable suction from the pump. It was pretty easy to set up. The site claims that it takes 10 min to put together, it took me about 20 min, but I am not all that savvy at these things either. I did have a mishap where water came pouring out of the unit when I first set it up because I did not tighten a part adequately. Overall I really like this UV and would buy it again. My one and only complaint is that the pump it comes with is a little loud, but I am being nit picky when I say that. It creates a bit of a hum, which is louder than anything else currently running on my tank, so it is noticeable to me, but only if I am listening for it. I made a video of me putting it together (there is no audio, just a song). The only thing not shown in the video is the paper towel test, which I honestly forgot to do initially and had to go back and do it later when I wasn't filming, but basically you stick a paper towel in the tube where the light should go and run the unit for 30 min. Then take the paper towel out and make sure it is still dry. If wet/damp you know you need to go back and tighten things up. <iframe width="640" height="360" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/qO8ORjWGGuI" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> This post has been promoted to an article
  5. I'm thinking about getting a UV sterilizer for my new 60gal, but I have no idea what brand or size to get or how to set it up. I read this article, but the links are broken and I don't really understand how you set up the external/in-line way. Can anyone help?
  6. To my great dismay my water has been getting that "cloudy" look it gets right before you get green water, so I went to go to pull out my handy dandy UV sterilizer and it looks like I lost the power cord when I moved. I was checking on Amazon and googling to see if I could just buy the cord but it doesn't seem to be an easy job. Has anyone had this happen? I figure if I can't just buy the cord, I'll go ahead and buy a cheap UV sterilizer again. I got the AA9W-UVC last time and I want to say it was $50 or so. It's this one: http://www.amazon.com/Green-Killing-Machine-Internal-Sterilizer/dp/B001KP9B2W However, it was rather chunky and I was hoping that if I'm going to get a new one, I could get a much smaller one that still works for a decent price. Any recommendations?
  7. I found this ad on Craigslist - does anyone have experience with any of these brands? I don't have any green water but I've heard they can be beneficial? Is it best to get them brand new or is used oK? Thoughts? Please. UV sterilizer "Aqua Step 25 watt" NIB $50 UV sterilizer "Aquanetics 25 watt" $20
  8. I've just installed the UV sterilizer (Green Killing Machine). Updates to follow.. PS- I think this is the first time I've put a tank shot up! Not very impressive...
  9. Yesterday on my way home from work, I went to Petsmart to pick up a few things to finish up the decoration on the 100g. The tank used to look like this: After adding some silk plants, more river stones, and the Green Killing Machine, the tank now looks like this: And, of course, the video with the gang enjoying their newly decorated home. This is just them swimming around. No food to stir them into a frenzy Thank you for watching
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