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  1. Hello, It's been a really long time since I made a KGW poll, and I thought I would (re)start by making a lighthearted one that also can be really informative about the browsing habits of KGW members. Feel free to comment
  2. Please join me in congratulating Alex on his Dash to the top of the polls! He sure did Bolt up there quickly. :rofl :congrats: :congrats:
  3. I. Introduction Breeding tubercles are small whitish nodular structures often found on male goldfish, and many other types of fish, spanning across at least 15 different families, and 4 orders. While some of these nodules are a constant presence on male goldfish, others appear preceding spawning, and disappear shortly after. Breeding tubercles, sometimes also called breeding stars, are found mainly on male goldfish, although in some rare instances can be found on females. Because breeding stars are usually found predominantly on males, these structures are fairly reliable markers for gender identification. There are two places where breeding tubercles are frequently found. First, they can be found on the front rays of the pectoral fins. Once the pectoral fins have developed (prior to sexual maturity), these structures remain in place for the duration of the fish's life. Pectoral stars can diminish in size after spawning, but will grow even larger during the next season. Breeding stars/tubercles on the pectoral fins of male goldfish Breeding stars are also often found on the gill opercula/covers of goldfish. Unlike the pectoral tubercles, these stars usually disappear after a season's spawning, and reappear in the next season. Breeding stars/tubercles on the gill plates of male goldfish Breeding stars/tubercles on both gill plates and pectoral fins of male goldfish In some instances, breeding tubercles can be found distributed throughout the entire body of the goldfish. II. Regulation & Function of Breeding Tubercles Breeding tubercles are essentially overgrown skin cells covered by a cap of keratin. These structures are formed in response to hormones such as testosterone from the gonads and other hormones from the pituitary glands. Stimulated cells begin to divide much faster than normal. These epidermal cells are also somehow reprogrammed to switch from mucus production to that of keratin, resulting in the keratin cap. Vascular networks are also induced and put in place, to support the long term survival of these structures (see figure below). Experimental studies have shown that injection of testosterone in both male and female fish are sufficient to induce the formation of breeding stars, although the process is much more easily done in males than in females, demonstrating that there are other male hormones/factors at work to enhance the process. These studies also suggest a way whereby sometimes female goldfish might acquire breeding tubercles, such as the overproduction of a particular hormone. (figure taken from Wiley & Collette) So, do these tubercles have any functions? While not much definitive work have been shown, a number of functions have been inferred, or suggested: - sexual display - to differentiate between male and females. - tactile stimulation of females during spawning - defense of territories and nests. It's been suggested that these hardened structures could be brandished as weapons of sorts. - dominance display among males - indicator of health (males free from parasitism will display more stars, while disease ridden ones may have few or none) It's important to note that in different species of tubercle bearing fish, the function(s) may vary. In goldfish, it's not clear what roles the breeding stars play in the spawning process, although territorial defense and usage as weapons are not likely. III. Conclusions While not much is known about the function of breeding tubercles, these contact organs are very useful in sex determination in goldfish, as they predominantly appear in males. IV. References 1. Wiley, ML & Collette, BB. 1970. Breeding tubercles and contact organs in fishes: their occurrence, structure, and significance. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 143:147. 2. Kortet, R. et al. 2004. Breeding tubercles, papillomatosis and dominance behaviour of male roach (Rutilus rutilus) during the spawning period. Ethology 110:591. 3. Ghadially, FN & Whiteley, HJ. 1952. Hormonally induced epithelial hyperplasia in the goldfish (Carrasius auratus). Br J Cancer 6:246. Click here to view the article
  4. Here is an article by Mr. Paul Van Allen, a training specialist working for Nikon, on how to take great pictures of fish. http://www.nikonusa.com/en/Learn-And-Explore/Article/h0ndz3t8/how-to-take-great-photos-at-the-aquarium.html I definitely recommend reading the article, but here are the salient points. Your settings should be: - manual - Auto ISO - 1/125 sec - f/5.6 - auto white balance - no flash Good luck, and happy picture taking. Here are some examples I hastily put together. This post has been promoted to an article
  5. Christmas is just around the corner! So it's time to get the Koko's gift exchange up and running once more. Myself and dnalex have the pleasure of conducting the Christmas exchange for this year To participate you need to be a Member for at least a year or have 1K in posts (the day it starts (This year Oct 20 2014))..... No exceptions. Please do PM Koko if you have any questions. Gift is up to a maximum of $20 if you wish to spend more than that its up to you. If you are under 18 your parents consent must be given before signing up to the exchange. All attempts will be made to pair you up with someone in your own country, however if you would like an overseas buddy or don't mind an overseas buddy please state this along with your wish list. As usual its a secret exchange so no one will know who their buddy is till the great gift exchange reveal happens. Please remember, when signing up for participation, that you also list what your interests are so that your christmas buddy has some idea on what to send you remember also to mention your Allergies, so that they know what NOT to send you ie, chocolates, but no nuts please..etc.. So sign up and put up your wish list and if you would like an overseas buddy and may the Holiday Season fun begin Deadline for sign up is November 10, 2014 ****Please PM your FULL Name/Postal Address to myself or Alex when you have signed up in this thread. We will compile names and addresses and send you your buddy's information when sign up closes.**** Let the fun begin _____________________ List of participants so far (last updated 10/24/2014) Helen (AUS) dnalex (USA) Black (UK) Flipper (USA) motherredcap (Norway) DieselPlower (USA) jenzaar (USA) Mikey (USA) fantailfan1 (USA) LisaCGold (USA) Georgia (USA) Daniel E. (USA) Mr. Hyde (CAN) jmetzger72 (USA) Hidr (USA) Mernany (USA) haley22 (USA) Kat_M (USA) molbert73 (USA) Lis (UK) dan in aus (AUS) Mr.B (USA)
  6. Congrats "dnalex" Tell us about this guy http://i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd425/tigglex/KGW/Fish052814001_zpsec2625cd.jpg
  7. We have a draw this week! Please join me in congratulating Alex and Dash, and Dawn and and her doggie walking troupe! dnalex Heidi030
  8. As I doing water changes the other day, I noticed that MagiKarp is now sporting some major wen action. He's been with me for 7 months, and he has grown quite a bit, as well as developing quite a respectable wen. Here he is in QT when I brought him home in August 2013 Here he is now in March 2014, with some cheeky closeups Note the mysis shrimp in some of the pics, as well as the one with him holding a bubble in his mouth [/url] And some random (and very closeup) pics of his tankmates, Othello the Moor, Hyperion the Telescope, and Yafa Boss Tammy the Ryukin! Thank you for looking!
  9. Congrats "dnalex" What a great shot....Tell us about this fish http://i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd425/tigglex/March%202014/MK08_zps6c9f31ee.jpg
  10. Congrats " dnalex " Thanks for all that you do
  11. I've had these two fish for some time now, but have actually never introduced them properly. So here goes These two, The Stakos and Una-Buna, both Sarasas, have been with me for about nine months. They have since doubled in size (standard length) and that caudal fins have started to get nice and flowy. These are some of the most active fish I've had, and seemingly spend all day cruising the tank. Together The Stakos Una-Buna Predators of the 100! And since it's the full moon today, it wouldn't be right if I didn't moon you! Thank you for looking!
  12. Congrats "dnalex" Great shot tell us about these guy http://i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd425/tigglex/December%202013/BNs/BNs_zps0951ee94.jpg
  13. Congrats DnAlex, what a great shot as Always, tell us about this guy... Speech Speech !! http://i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd425/tigglex/December%202013/The%20MagiKarp/KBN_2244_zps9a7310a0.jpg
  14. I have three black goldfish in my keeping. Othello is the black moor, and has been with me since I came back to this hobby. He is about 5 years old now, and while he has threatened to lose his black color several times, he has not. At this point it doesn't seem like he will be, although he would of course make a smashing orange or apache fish. Things 1 and 2 are my East Coast Thai Ranchus, which Cynthia was really kind to part with me when they were wee ones. They have been with me since the middle of May 2013, so they are about 9 or so months old. These two fish are the grumpiest looking fish ever. They are still somewhat small, although both are growing nicely. Thing 2 (smaller one) seemed like he was starting to lose his melanophores a couple of weeks ago, but now he's all black again. So, I don't know what's up with that. Without further ado, here are my black goldfish, because, in the words of some fame monger, "black is the new black." :rofl Othello Thing 1 (Bigger Chu) Thing 2 (Smaller Chu) And some of Hyperion, to bring some light amidst all this darkness. Thank you for looking, and please forgive my indulgence in excessive numbers of pics.
  15. Goldfish rank at the top of the list of ornamental fish species that are released by humans into the wild, as their keepers either grow tired of the fish, or have decided one way or another that they don't want to keep these fish. Without thinking, the release of goldfish into lakes, rivers, etc. all over the world can have some drastic negative impacts, not only on other fish, but potentially a vast array of other animals in that ecosystem. In the study I am sharing with you below, a group of Spanish researchers show the potential negative impact of such an action on amphibians. Here, the study authors used the Alpine newts, and showed that by simply sharing cohabitation with goldfish, these newts hide more often, and exhibit less sexual activity. This is the study abstract and the full article http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0082736
  16. My profuse apologies for the recent slew of photo-spamming, but the MagiKarp was just being too adorable. :rofl Othello is unimpressed, though
  17. Hello Over the Thanksgiving holiday, I upgraded my camera, and I have still trying to get the hang of it. The new cam is amazing and has a lot to offer, but it's going to take a while to learn to use it properly. I had a test photoshoot earlier, and thought I would update you on some of my fish. They are all doing very well, and growing nicely. Other than feeding them, doing water changes, and cleaning their tanks, I'm not really doing much, which is exactly how I prefer it. I am still working on getting the right settings. These are off, but I am getting closer. Thank you for looking. The Ryukins (Boss Lisa and Yafa Boss Tammy!). They are clearly the bosses in the tanks! Alyssa the Fantail MagiKarp the Orandashishigashira Random Pics
  18. to a dear friend who is never short of helping me or anyone in this community! thank you so much Happy Birthday to YOU! i hope you have a wonderful day
  19. As some of you know, I brought The MagiKarp home last week from Petco, and so far she has been doing excellently in QT, going through her rounds of 0.3% salt and Prazipro. I am still learning how to use my camera, and decided to try for some closeups. Here she is in her QT. "Mirror, mirror, on the wall..." Enjoying a messy meal of Pro-Gold. She does not like NLS or Hikari Lionhead, but approves of mysis shrimp and bloodworms. LOL The Close-Ups (at varying ranges) Thank you for looking.
  20. I contacted Cynthia of East Coast Ranchu (one of our forum sponsors) a little over a month ago about getting some ranchus, since I had not been restocking my tanks when my older fish passed away. Cynthia was very gracious, and was quite a pleasure to deal with. I chose two day FedEx shipping, and the fish arrived safely, soundly, and did not at all seem like they had spent almost two days in a box. Because Cynthia had already treated these fish for flukes and other parasites, the current QT is quite easy. They have received two rounds of prazi, and because there was absolutely no reaction, I will wait for another few months before I do another dose. In addition to these chus, I also brought home a calico ryukin from my local Petsmart. Everyone is behaving well, and showed no response to prazi. They do not have names yet, but here they are. Two Black Chus These are the smallest of the six, and I can hardly tell them apart. They are settling in nicely, and have grown in the last two weeks. Calico Ranchu This one is so fast, I had trouble trying to get some good photos. Lemonhead Sakura Ranchu This one is my favorite. Bonus Sakura Ranchu I had originally bought 5, but Cynthia sent me a bonus. He is missing an eye, but that has not impeded him one bit. This is my second favorite. Calico Ryukin He was at the local Petsmart for over a month, and was still there when I went to get sand. I have high hopes for this one. Random Shots The Big Boss :rofl Thank you for looking!
  21. Over the weekend, I did some minor shuffling around, and moved the MagiKarp to the 55. It's become obvious over the last few weeks that MK is male, and so he is a perfect fit for the Bachelor Tank. Mad-Eye Moody has moved out and will be in his own tank. I took the opportunity to take better pics of the MagiKarp, and of his tank mates. The MagiKarp Hyperion Othello Yafa Boss Tammy Thank you for looking. This should be my last update for this tank for some time!
  22. All this talk of orandas lately has made me realize how much I miss not having a single oranda in my tanks, even though these fish are my favorites. Funny enough, yesterday I went to Petco to redeem a coupon (plant), I saw some nice orandas in the koi tank. This is quite unusual for our Petco, as they tend to only bring in smaller fish. These guys are a great size, and equal to what would have been $35 at Petsmart. They were only $18! I quickly spotted one that just looked so awesome. I didn't get him though, telling myself that I didn't want to set up a new QT, etc etc. I was ready not to do anything, except I was talking to Pearlscaleperfect, who was NOT helping the situation. So, long story short, this beautiful oranda is in QT, with 0.3% salt and PraziPro. We've already had one mishap where a brand new QT leaked, but everything seems to be going fine now. Please wish us luck, and an uneventful QT. He does not have a name yet. I am leaning towards Anomander. These were some of the fish's reactions upon learning that I brough home a new fish. Thank you for looking!
  23. Congrats Alex please tell us about these beauties http://i1219.photobucket.com/albums/dd425/tigglex/August%202013/060_zps0c7a5297.jpg
  24. So, now that I've decided to have plants again, I am just revving up to add plants to the tank. I'm only going to have anubias for now, so I went to Petsmart and Petco to get a few more. What do you think? Here's the full shot of the 100 gallons Left side Right side Full shot of the 55. (It's a bit barren right now, but we'll get there soon!) Left side Right side These plants are all glued onto rocks. Any suggestions on other low-light plants that I can glue? I'm addicted! Thanks for looking!
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