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Found 11 results

  1. well, i tried, but she's too stubborn and won't be convinced!
  2. i have taken a bunch of photos in these last few days and compiled them onto a youtube video please enjoy
  3. Here is how, with Alex's help, i was able to make medicated gelfood to resemble the JungleAP that was available in America but not in Australia. notice that i do not mention dosage? it is weight specific, so, if you need to make this product, it will be determined by the Moderator or Helper assiting you in your 911 or DnD thread. from there, either myself or another Moderator must be contacted to help you access the meds and make the medicated food accordingly. this is my first tutorial on the medfood, please excuse the nervousness
  4. well, it's been asked a lot recently. here is one of my tanks that i call the Totts tank.. although the fish aren't what you would consider small.. 5"+ to me, compared to my giants, they are small.. (not all the totts are in this vid, 3 fish are in qt.. they presented with slime coat thickening, so they've been salt dipped and are spending a few weeks in 0.2% salt, recovering nicely ) so, seeing as a few requests were made for me to present a video.. preferably to name my fish.. i hate to disappoint, but i don't speak in this one but you're not missing anything.. other than Rocky, who is my 8 year old stunted fantail.. and the new Ms Piggy.. no-one else really has names in this tank please enjoy
  5. Columnaris Infection Other Names: • Myxobacterial Disease • Saddleback • Fin Rot • Cotton Wool Disease • Black Patch Necrosis Previously known as Myxobacterial Disease, Columnaris is a bacterial disease. Initially, it presents like cotton wool, commonly around the gills, mouth and skin of freshwater fish. Columnaris is primarily an epithelial disease. Meaning that its attack will most likely be formed on the exterior of a fish. It causes erosive lesions on the skin and gills that may become systemic (internal). The most common member of this group is known as Flavobacterium columnare and has affected freshwater fish on a worldwide scale. Columnaris is a highly transmittable disease/infection and can wipe out an entire community of freshwater fish within a few hours to a few days depending on the temperature. It is usually pathogenic at temperatures higher than -15 degrees C (59F). Mortality and acuteness of this disease increase as the temperature does. An example from the book of Noga explains: “experimental infections can kill oriental weatherfish within -7days at -15 degrees C (59F) and in only 1 day at 35 degrees C (95F)” This information indicates that, if we have noticed Columnaris disease in our tanks, the immediate action that is required is to try as safely as possible to drop the temperature as much as we can. Only this will buy us time to find the meds required to treat the disease from spreading and keeping the mortality rate down. Any tools used such as siphons, nets, ornaments, gravel etc etc will need to be sterilized. If any of this equipment has come into contact with other community tanks, then ALL the fish will need to be immediately treated. The causes: Studies have supported that Columnaris as a disease and its infection begins with poor quality of water. Uneaten foods, fish waste not removed, high nitrates and hard water as well as the biological filter media not being cleaned regularly enough. Other factors may include low oxygen levels in the water, physical injuries left unattended in a badly maintained aquarium etc... In a well established aquarium, after many years, should an outbreak of Columnaris occur, it is most likely due to bad maintenance of the aquarium and its filtration media, meaning, it will affect the entire community of fish. Tropical fish are not exempt from an outbreak of Columnaris disease. So, what to look for? if your fish has a few areas on its body that present as a whitish appearance, which resemble the look of cotton wool in the areas of Gills, Mouth or Skin (can even cause scales to pop out or fall off at different locations (not pineconed) ). White spots on the skin beginning to look ulcerated and fluffy that may be turning yellow (mucus like) with/or beginning to form a red ring around the outside of the ulcer (advanced stages), lethargy, possible sudden weightloss/anorexia, then it is most likely Columnaris Disease and you need to act very fast. The change of colour to the lesions indicates bacteria are growing rapidly. Begins white, changes colour to yellow and then to orange as the bacterium matures. How to treat: Treatment requires highly toxic and aggressive medications that we, under normal circumstances refrain from suggesting their use here on kokos because of their potential damage to gills and organs, under normal circumstances we practice safer treatment methods. however, due to the aggressive nature of this disease, and in the advice from the experts that contributed to the book of Noga, here is how and what they recommend as treatment for Columnaris Disease: For surface infections only: 1. Potassium Permanganate prolonged immersion 2. Copper sulphate prolonged immersion 3. Quaternary ammonium bath For Systemic infection: if ulcers are showing on 5% or over of body surface area indicating advanced cases, then an appropriate antibiotic needs to be used. Noga suggests “Oxytetracycline and/or nifurpirinol, but not many if not all are resistant to ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine and other sulfas” Fish with many ulcers indicating an highly advanced bacterial infection due to Columnaris, will show signs of lethargy, loss of appetite leading to anorexia. It is possible to bathe this fish in a recommended dose Potassium Permanganate in order to stimulate enough appetite to commence oral medication. I recommend immediate posting in the 911 Emergency forum if at any time you suspect a disease like this is occuring to your community of fish. Immediately you have finished posting, please then use the "Report" button at the bottom of your post to alert us the moment you're done. We will do our best to guide you through what steps need to be taken. it is very important that you provide media such as non blurry pictures and a video to support your posting. This post has been promoted to an article
  6. well, here's the guy i spoke of yesterday? a few days ago? i can't remember
  7. i purchased a pearlie on the 08.11.2012, added her to the Totts tank along with the butterfly telescopes that i'd purchased at the same time. my clan is being treated with Parasite Guard at the moment.. today, i went and purchased her sibling. although i have not taken photos of the second new pearlie, i will get round to that when business is not so busy.. here are a few of the many pics i took of Ms Piggy Random Poses Belly Poses Butt Poses Blob Poses i am really in love with this little girl i hope she and her sibling do ok in my care
  8. have new family members.. 5 telescope butterflies and 1 pearlscale for the totts tank
  9. Helen

    BIOFILM

    Biofilm How does biofilm appear in our fish tanks? Biofilm appears as a slimy coating to our inner fish tank walls, airline tubing, bubble wands and other equipment, it settles on gravel, ornaments inside and out and with poor surface agitation, can settle onto the surface of the water. With poor maintenance or poor/restricted filtration, biofilm will build up and as it grows a certain volume, can become free flowing from the attached surfaces. Free flowing biofilm in chunks can cause problems to filters. It has potential to clog filter mechanisms and as a result, restrict the flow which restricts the performance of the filtration. Eventually, this can lead to a cycle bump or complete loss of cycle. So what is Biofilm? From what I have learned with my online researching and in the book of Noga, biofilm is an aggregation of microorganisms growing on all surfaces exposed to water or other fluids. These first microorganism colonists stick to the surfaces initially during the weak Van Der Waals forces*. If the colonists are not immediately separated from the surface, they can anchor themselves to the surfaces or existing colonists. Once they have begun colonizing, the biofilm grows through a combination of cell division and recruitment. One can typically find biofilm on solid surfaces submerged or exposed to liquid of many kinds. Many kinds of bacteria and archaea which are living within a matrix of excreted polymeric compounds can exist in biofilm. This matrix protects the cells within it and facilitates communication among them through chemical and physical signs. Through nature, biofilm is common as bacteria commonly have mechanisms by which they can adhere to surfaces and each other. If not removed regularly, they can anchor themselves more permanently using cell adhesion molecules such as pili. Some biofilm have been found to contain water channels that help distribute nutrients and signalling molecules. This matrix is strong enough that in some cases, biofilm can become fossilized. As an example in other living creatures, particularly humans. Biofilm can be seen on the teeth of humans and presents as a yellowing film over white teeth. The yellowing film is the biofilm. If teeth aren’t brushed free from biofilm, then bacteria will be formed. Once bacteria is formed and the biofilm is still left unattended, corrosion of the tooth/teeth begins. This can lead to cavities and other dental issues. Most know this formation as dental plaque. Taken from an online source available to the public: “Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in aqueous environments and begin to excrete a slimy, glue-like substance that can anchor them to all kinds of material – such as metals, plastics, soil particles, medical implant materials, and tissue. A biofilm can be formed by a single bacterial species, but more often biofilm consist of many species of bacteria, as well as fungi, algae, protozoa, debris and corrosion products. Essentially, biofilm may form on any surface exposed to bacteria and some amount of water. Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a variety of detrimental or beneficial reactions (by human standards), depending on the surrounding environmental conditions.” How can we reduce biofilm within our fish tanks? Regular cleaning of internal walls. Wiping them down with a clean cotton cloth and rinsing that cloth away from the tank in dechlorinated water prior to re-entering into the tank again for the next wipe is a good way. Ensuring you are regularly scrubbing ornaments inside and out including their flat underside surface. Thoroughly cleaning gravel. Using a competent filter which consists of filter media such as bio-ceramic rings, bio-balls, filtration sponges or filter floss etc. The filter’s housing inner and outer as well as its components also requires regular cleaning. *Wikipedia: The van der Waals equation is an equation of state for a fluid composed of particles that have a non-zero volume and a pairwise attractive inter-particle force (such as the van der Waals force.) It was derived by Johannes Diderik van der Waals in 1873, who received the Nobel Prize in 1910 for "his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids". The equation is based on a modification of the ideal gas law and approximates the behaviour of real fluids, taking into account the nonzero size of molecules and the attraction between them. This post has been promoted to an article
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