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  1. You have very specific questions with regards to breeding. Unfortunately, like Chelsea has said, goldfish fry are difficult to look after. From my experience, it doesn't mean that you have hand spawned the fish means that you are going to end up with fry. I will do my best with answering your questions. 1) For breeding it is suggested that having one female to two or three males is ideal. That way there is enough milt to ensure that there is fertilisation of the eggs. However since you want to have them when they are small, it can be difficult to sex the fish so buying several fish should hopefully have some males and females. 2) A lot of this depends on the genetics of the fish itself. As you are most likely going to purchase fish from an unknown source i.e. not a specific breeder, it is difficult to know exactly what genes these fish carry. The dedicated fish breeders in Japan hold onto their bloodlines very tightly and do not want to share them. These fish that these breeders keep have very specific bloodlines that have been bred over decades of years hence why they can produce spectacular colours. For your situation, it would be best to start out with fish who have the body shape that you prefer and who are most likely to develop the head growth that you desire. When orandas are young, very little headgrowth is observed. 3) Goldfish genetics are very complicated. They are not like other fish species such as livebearers and cichlids where if you breed the same colour with the same colour a vast majority of the fish have the colours of the parents. Again, as you don't know exactly what type of genes these fish have, there is a mix of colours that can be had. From my experience, I thought that by breeding calico fantails with calico fantails I would only get calico fantails. Instead, I got a mixture of about 60% calico and the rest metallic scale. Amongst these fish were also ones with telescope eyes and a few single tails as well. In order to get the colours that you want, you need to cull the ones that show the colours that you don't want and keep them until they are big enough so that you can breed them again to get the correct colour genes that you want. 4) Shallow tubs are good if you want to keep the body shape true to the form of the type of goldfish. For example, shallow ponds are used extensively for breeders of ranchu. Deeper ponds are thought to change the shape of the fish due to the pressure from the water. Usually a depth of 30-45 cms (1-1.5ft) is ideal. 5) Hand breeding is the best way to ensure that you get the right mix of genes from the male and female. If you want to let nature do its thing, that is when the ratio of one female to two or three males is required. If you have unexpected breeding, let the fish eat the eggs. Differences in fish from other countries If you have the money to buy fish from a reputable breeder, it is worth the time and effort. However, just to start out, it would be best to just buy some fish locally that you like and try and breed them. There is a very steep learning curve and you need to know what works best for you. Fish from Singapore, China and Thailand are different based upon the goldfish show standards that they have. For example, there are a lot of Thai black ranchu but in Japan, the black ranchu is frowned upon and is not identified as a 'true' ranchu. Hope this helps If you want to know more about goldfish genetics, this book is quite good. I'm currently reading it. It's a bit advance and would be good if you understand Medelian theory or genetics 101 "Goldfish breeding and genetics" by Smartt and Bundell
  2. I've stumbled across this whilst browsing my uni ebook library. Aquarium care of goldfish by Boruchowitz This is quite a decent beginner goldfish keeping book. It emphasizes how important 10 gallons per fish is and recommends large water changes.
  3. +1 for the aquaclears! Have one running for over 10 years now and hasn't missed a beat. Only had to replace the impeller when it wasn't working well... Other options would be external cannister either a fluval or an eheim. These hold more filter media and are as reliable as the aquaclears from my experience and friends. If you don't mind the look of them, sponge filters would be a good secondary/backup filter in case of power outage as sometimes the aquaclears and externals don't self prime.... have been caught out a couple of times
  4. it sure is.. here are a few more http://www.kokosgoldfish.invisionzone.com/forum/index.php?/topic/109032-leonidis-tumor-removal-11032013/ http://www.kokosgoldfish.invisionzone.com/forum/index.php?/topic/112323-leonidis-tumor-removal-31072013-4th-procedure/ Wow!! You have some awesome skills there Thanks for the links
  5. Very interesting read! I'm fascinated how they can perform surgery on fish. Here's another article about a fish called George who had a tumor removed http://www.cbsnews.com/news/goldfish-named-george-life-saving-tumor-removal-surgery/
  6. Watching my tiny goldfish quickly grow into GIANTS!!
  7. Yeah, I was thinking of hand spawning because my fish are in a display tank where I cannot raise fry. When I have tried to remove the few eggs that are left after I come home, they do not hatch (I think this is because they are sensitive and need to be kept in the tank, where there is current and aeration. I had great success using floating breeding baskets in the past, but that was when I was there to catch the eggs as they fell from the fish). I have considered putting the adults in a separate tank for spawning, but I am rarely home to supervise this and cannot know when it will happen. The people here and my Fancy Goldfish book both advise doing things to initiate spawning after a heavy rain, but I live in California where we are in the midst of a massive drought and we don't really get seasons like most other parts of the country do. The weather is weird here! [emoji4]I hope my fish will make use of the spawning mop I have put in the tank, as that would really help to protect the eggs before I get home from work. Unfortunately, they seem rather intimidated by it! [emoji53] Totally understand about the weather! I'm down in Brisbane Australia and we have similar weather. Very hot and dry with very little rain. Haven't seen decent rainfall in a very long time... My godlies are in a display tank too so I'm waiting for the other females (mainly ryukins) to spawn. I tend to feed them a little more to encourage the females to make eggs. Other than that, I just wait and wait and wait... until some spawning action happens!! Usually the good spawns occur about 4-5 in the morning when it is still dark and they continue for a couple of hours. I also miss out most of the time as I like to stay in bed. I'm not sure what you are using for a spawing mop but I have been using a big bunch of elodea tied down. This is under the outlet of my pump so water flows over it. I find that the eggs attach in a lot of places that the other fish can't get too whether it be in the middle or on the under side of the leaves. If I see some eggs attached, I just take the plant out and put it in a half filled two foot tank and an air pump. I find that there are LOTS of eggs that I don't see and usually end up with hundreds of fry. Even tho I can only count 10 eggs at most! Here's a pic of what I have in my tank at the moment. Hope this helps!
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