dnalex's post in 55g cycling with fish was marked as the answer
Perhaps this will be a useful guide for you.
The "a-ni-1" rule for fish-in cycling
1. You will need Prime (or Amquel Plus, if you cannot find Prime) as your water conditioner.
2. You will need to have your kH at 150ppm, or greater.
3. You will need to check your ammonia, nitrite, (nitrate), and pH daily.
- dose the tank with 2x Prime (or 1X Amquel Plus) daily.
- for any given day, if ammonia (a) + nitrite (ni) is less than one, no water change is necessary.
- if a + ni is equal to, or greater, than 1, immediately do as big a WC as you can. Ideally, this should be an 80-100% WC.
- continue this until you see no more ammonia, but start to see nitrites
- then, you will no longer dose with Prime or Amquel daily, but dose only during WCs
- add 0.1% salt to the tank, and maintain it at this level. This is to detoxify the nitrite storm.
- you should still not let nitrite exceed 1-2ppm. When it exceeds that level, a large WC is in order.
- maintain course until you get 0 for ammonia and nitrite, at which point you do a big WC and do not replace salt.
- congrats! Your tank is now cycled!
dnalex's post in Wen Infection? was marked as the answer
Mikey, that hole doesn't even look infected, so I am not quite sure what it is that you were hoping for.
The thing to keep in mind is that while some things need intervention, these little issues should not be treated, because:
1) we need to let the fish develop resistance to infections on its own
2) we need to avoid the meds, which are always harsh (to varying extents) on the fish, unless we really need.
We can be scrutinizing fish for every little issue and try to treat for it.
I mean, if you have a small cut on your hand, are you going to run and take a 10 day course of antibiotics? What about a single pimple? It's just not necessary, and somewhat excessive.
dnalex's post in Swollen belly? was marked as the answer
I love the Fancy Goldfish book, and that book should teach you quite a bit, even if you are an advanced goldfish keeper, whatever advanced means. :rofl
Unless you are in a hurry, or if there are some worrying symptoms with Mochi, I would like to just to 0.3% salt for 2 weeks, and then head to the prazi treatment. I find that the salt does a lot of help with potential external parasite issues and other things, and by the time the 2 weeks are over, we can be confident not having to worry about things like ich, velvet and all those are weird things.
dnalex's post in Wen issue was marked as the answer
This time of year is the time for wen issues, because I think the cooler temps do signal for certain goldfish processes to slow down while bacterial functions stay the same or better. I don't think you need to treat anyone else, and this is probably better done in QT, both to prevent a possible spread, and also to keep others from trying his wen as a snack.
1% of bodyweight MMs daily, in 3-6 meals, 14 days minimum. Please update daily, so that we know whether MMs are appropriate.
dnalex's post in What is in my tank? Also featuring eye bulge and freakish mouth was marked as the answer
Mystery/apple snails etc. lay eggs at the top. Nerites are not so kind. They will lay eggs at every and any surface they like.
dnalex's post in internal worms? was marked as the answer
I can't really see much, but I am fairly confident that it's her vent, and nothing more than that. This is in part because if you have a worm sticking out, it would have continued to creep out until it's quite unmistakable. Here is a pic of a female goldfish vent. Does this look like what you see?
Both of your fish look great.
dnalex's post in Is there any relationship between substrate and dropsy? was marked as the answer
I will answer the dropsy question first.
Dropsy is simply organ failure (kidneys), and there can be a number of causes, including infections (viruses, bacteria, parasites), and non-infections (organ damage, drastic and sudden drops in temperature). Beyond that, we don't know as much, but we do know that metronidazole is the one med that has the highest success rate. Others, such as Baytril, oxolinic acid, and kanamycin sometimes work, but sometimes they can also inflict even more damage on the kidneys. Metronidazole actually is an antibiotic AND an antiparasite med, which treats protozoal microbes. Metro-Meds, which has 3 antibiotics in addition to metronidazole, works even better than metronidazole alone, which lends to the idea that in the majority of cases, dropsy can be attributed to either parasites or bacteria, with the contributions by bacteria being larger.
Why do I think that hardness plays a role in preventing dropsy? Dropsy is the failure of osmoregulation, which leads to accumulation of excess fluids internally. The minerals that raise hardness are primarily calcium and magnesium, and both of these elements are critical in the physiology of the fish. In the context of dropsy, calcium plays a pivotal role in regulating osmoregulatory functions (fluid balances) at the gills. Magnesium is also another critical factor in osmoregulation. Hence, with a sufficient hard water, we supply enough of these important molecules.
dnalex's post in Tank gallons was marked as the answer
A ten gallon tank could be used as a temporary tank for one fish for a few months, or used as a quarantine tank when done properly.
It really cannot house any goldfish on a permanent basis.
To house goldfish, you will really want to start with a 40 gallon tank (at least), and allocate about 15-20 gallons per goldfish.
dnalex's post in Possible scrapes with blood? What happened! was marked as the answer
I don't know if the injury is the result of a filter mishap, but I absolutely agree that it's an injury, given the time frame, etc.
There are two options:
- the first has been mentioned several times up above, and that is just clean water. The injury actually doesn't look too bad, and I think will heal nicely with just clean water. Instead of doing the one WC weekly, perhaps increase it to 3 times a week for the next 2 weeks. I think you will see remarkably fast healing.
- the other option is to salt the tank to 0.2%, to help speed up healing and to block secondary infections. Based on what I've seen, I don't know that you need to do this, but if you feel that you absolutely have to be more pro-active than the other option, this is OK, too.
dnalex's post in Could an aquarium be cycled using snails?. was marked as the answer
Any source of ammonia is possible.
The thing here is that when we are saying that the tank is cycled, we really mean that the tank is cycled for a specific bioload. If the tank has been cycled for one fish, for example, add another two in will most likely result in a cycle bump.
That's why when we fishless cycle, we aim for processing of 1ppm ammonia and the resulting nitrites in 24 hours or less.
So, yes, you can cycle with snails, but how many snails you need, I don't know. That will of course depend on the setup as well.
dnalex's post in Difference between filter floss and filter pad? was marked as the answer
To me, this is filter floss
and this is filter pad
The floss actually made my tank cloudy, because I stuffed too much in the filter.
I don't think you need both. Just one or the other. I tend to favor the filter pads better.