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koko

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  1. congrats hun please tell us about this guy View attachment: picoful.jpg
  2. Congrats hun, again I may say what a wonderful shot. Please tell us about this guy View attachment: picoful.jpg
  3. Hatching Out Apple Snail Clutches They laid eggs! Now what do I do!?!? ~or~ Hatching Out Apple Snail Clutches A Research Project by Michelle, AKA Lady_Dodecagon Ok, to start out I want to say that this guide is for Pomacea Bridgesii (Brigs) clutches only. They are the most common type of Apple Snail sold in the pet trade and seem to be the easiest to hatch out. I am sure that aspects of this guide could be applied to other species, but I have not worked with anything other than Brigs, so I am not really sure. What is this thing in the top of my tank? If you have more than one apple snail you have pretty good chances of getting them to lay eggs if you want them to or not. If your snails are of breeding size (normally the size of a quarter) and you have been keeping their tank ideal then you will have eggs appear. Brigs lay their eggs in clutches above the water level. Brig clutches in tanks normally appear on the glass or in the tank hood. Any spot where there is warm, humid air is a good choice for a Brig momma wanting to give her babies the best possible start in the world. Brig clutches will look like this: Ok, I have eggs. But what if I don't want to hatch them out? If you do not wish to hatch out your Brig eggs, that is fine. I have always taken a piece of tissue paper and taken the clutch from the tank. I wrap it up and toss the clutch in the trash can. Once the eggs are removed from the ideal environment they will not hatch. Ok, I have eggs. How exciting! How do I get babies now? If you want to hatch the eggs there are two choices you can make: leave them where they are remove them from the tank and place them in a hatchery Leaving them where they are might be the best alternative since mom thought it was a great place for her babies. She had to have a reason for that huge decision! If you have a snail-only tank I would advise this. If you have fish in the tank, you need to remove the eggs to hatch them out because fish will eat the newborn babies. Leaving them alone requires less attention from you, but you will have to be careful when doing your gravel vacuuming and water changes if they hatch before you can catch them and put them into a baby tank. I want to leave mine in the tank. What do I need to do? I would suggest lifting the hood daily to check on the eggs. If they look dry you can take a small spray bottle and mist them lightly with tank water. It normally takes from one to three weeks for the babies to develop and hatch out. I want to use a nursery, but where do I get one? Well, simply put, you can't. You will have to make one yourself. You will need a container (preferably a clear deli cup), a piece of Styrofoam, and some sort of lid. Poke some air holes in the lid and put just enough tank water in the container to cover the bottom and make the Styrofoam float. Gently remove the egg clutch from the tank and place it on the Styrofoam. Put the lid on the 'nursery' and place in a warm location where condensation will form on the lid. This 'terrarium' effect will recreate the warm, humid environment that the developing babies need. Open the nursery about twice a day to ensure that plenty of fresh air gets in and while the nursery is open mist the clutch lightly with a spray bottle of tank water. *Change the water in the bottom of the nursery daily! It will stagnate fast. Use tank water every time.* Lift the Styrofoam and let the water drain from it after each misting before replacing the lid and placing the nursery back in its warm spot. Got it! Now, what am I looking for? As the clutch ages the color may change. Clutches from dark bodied snails such as Blues or Jades will turn a darker color as the babies develop. Below is a picture of a clutch undergoing this change. As they hatch the clutch will begin to look very, very dry and rugged. It may even collapse upon itself! No worries, this is just the babies eating their way out of the eggs and into the world. Below is a picture of a clutch hatching. The clutch will dissolve and the babies will fall into the water. At this time they will need to be captured (you can use a large turkey baster for this if you need to) and placed into a cycled, bare bottom grow out tank. You will have to place fine netting like pantyhose or filter sponge on the intake of any HOB filters running in the grow out tank because the babies can (and will) get sucked up into the filter. Keep them in this tank until they are at least pea size, then they can be put into regular tank. Warning! Fish will try and successfully eat baby snails. If you plan on putting your snails into a tank where fish will live, then you need to wait until the snails are bigger. They should not be able to fit into the fish's mouth at all. What do my new snail babies eat? You can feed your babies the same food you feed your adults, but crush it very finely. Babies should have easy access to food at all times because they wear themselves out crawling far to search for food. They need a diet high in calcium and proteins for nice, strong shell growth. Credits and links: My first Brigs, Gary and Blue for giving me the clutch I started with. Myself (of course) for actually getting to experience all this firsthand. www.applesnail.net (for pictures) www.rainbowsnails.com (Search around here for some really good snail biscuits that are the perfect staple diet.)
  4. Congrats. All I have to say is WOW what a photo View attachment: picoful.jpg
  5. Congrats hun please tell us about this guy View attachment: picoful.jpg
  6. Congrats hun please tell us about this fish View attachment: picoful.jpg
  7. Congrats great photo hun. Tell us about the fish and man how you did that great shot View attachment: picoful.jpg
  8. Congrats to both of you please tell us about your fish What a tie View attachment: picoful.jpg
  9. Congrats hun I think we have seen this fish before but please tell us about him/ her again View attachment: pico.jpg
  10. Flukes, Diagnosis and Treatment Options Flukes, part of the phylum Platyheminthes, which literally means flat worm. When many people hear the term flatworm, planaria come to mind. Planaria are a harmless, non-parasitic cousin to the fluke. Flukes are a parasite that can quickly harm and even kill your fish. They act quickly and indiscriminately, people can even get them from eating uncooked/undercooked fish. Oddly enough people are the root of the problem. Eggs of the fluke live in feces from infected humans, when those feces get into the water the fish and snails eat the eggs, the flukes hatch, people eat the fish and the whole cycle keeps going and going and going. Fluke outbreaks in aquariums are most commonly caused by poor water conditions, stress and over crowding. They can also be brought in on new fish, another reason to quarantine all new fish before introducing them to your aquarium. There are two main types of flukes that might be lurking on or in your fish. There are the skin/gill flukes, called Monogenea and then there are the flukes that live inside, called Trematodes. Monogenea are fairly easy to recognize. They usually attach themselves near the gills of the fish with a sucker and two clasping hooks. Once attached the flukes constantly feed on the skin cells of the fish. This type of fluke reproduces at an alarming rate; even the young ones have even younger ones growing inside of them. It is possible for the ?mother? to have a nearly fully developed young one inside her that has yet another one growing inside it. Because of this possible three generations in one, populations of flukes can double every 24 hours. Quick intervention is critical. The symptoms of Monogenea are easy to recognize, they begin with breathing difficulties, flashing/scratching, rapid gill movement, and yawning. As the infestation progresses the fish will become lethargic and will eventually isolate itself and spend long periods of time resting on the bottom with clamped fins. The only way to diagnose Monogenea is to do a skin scrape and gill biopsy. Monogenea can get up to 2mm in length and therefore can be easily seen with a low powered microscope, just take a skin scrape and a gill biopsy and see if you can see anything. For a good guide to taking these samples visit this site http://www.fishdoc.co.uk/microscope/micro06.htm . Trematodes are a little harder to see because they live inside the body. They reside in the bile ducts and slowly make their way to the liver. This type of fluke is slightly less common because Trematodes require snails to reach the point in their life cycle where they can inhabit fish. The symptoms of Trematodes are a little harder to pinpoint. They include sitting on the bottom, lethargy and rapid weight loss. The fish will appear to be just wasting away. Many times a trematode infestation will be mistaken as a bacterial infection, so it is sometimes wise to treat for flukes as well as the bacterial infection. There are many treatment options for Monogenea, the easiest being salt dips. Consecutive treatments over 2-3 days will usually knock out any flukes living on your fish. The only trouble with the salt dips is that it only affects the flukes on your fish, not the eggs and larvae in your tank. To take care of those you need to use potassium permanganate to sterilize your tank. In order for this mode of treatment to be successful you need to keep the fish out of the infected tank until it had been sterilized and the fish has gone through 2-3 days of salt dips. A treatment of malachite and formalin may also be effective in combating Monogenea but the higher doses are most generally needed in order to be effective. Fluke-tabs are also effective in treating for Monogenea. They contain organophosphates which are effective in killing flukes but flukes eventually build up a resistance to them. Fluke-tabs should not be used on Discus and Catfish; they are toxic to those types of fish. Great care should also be exercised when using them on Goldfish and Koi. Quite often they will experience an inflammatory dermatitis if the medicine is left in the water for over 48 hours. When using this treatment on Koi and Goldfish it is recommended that you do a 50% water change after 48 hours, wait 24 hours and then re-treat. To treat Trematodes you need one of the many internal parasite remedies that are on the market. The most effective treatment is praziquantel, commonly known as prazi. Flukes are easy to treat but sometimes difficult to eradicate. The earlier you catch them the easier it will be to get rid of them, early detection is the key! You should also protect yourself; never eat raw or undercooked fish, especially if it comes from Asia where an estimated 30 million people are infected. Although medical treatments are available the host may suffer permanent damage to the liver and bile ducts. If left untreated death may occur.
  11. Yep as some of you know this is Pharoh, my King of the tank goldfish. Hes 7 years old this year and is 8 1/2 inches long. Hes feed nothing but gel food 2 times a day, water changes of 50% once a week and has 2 350 penguin filters on his tank. He lives in a 45 gal tank with his 2 girl friends, Fionia and Princess. He has fathered 1 baby fish named Konigin.. Thanks to all the voted for him cause it took quite allot to get that photo including feeding him View attachment: picoful.jpg
  12. Hatching Brine Shrimp for a Smaller Amount of Fry: I recommend this for approximately 20 fry or less. Use a small cognac glass. It is similar to the size of Betta bowls in your local fish store. Filling it half-full of water is approximately ? a quart. Follow the directions for hatching the eggs: fill the glass half full, soak approximately ?- ? tsp of eggs for 1 full hour with aeration. Be sure to keep the amount of airflow low to avoid splatter and turbulence. Taping down the airline with masking tape is helpful. You can use saran wrap to cover the top of the glass. After soaking, add 1 flat Tbsp of aquarium salt to the water. To avoid crushing the eggs at the bottom, I suggest allowing the salt to slide into the water along the side of the glass. You may notice that the salt does not fully disperse, that is ok. It will over time. To keep the water warm use a small 15W bulb that touches the bowl itself. This will keep the water warm, but not too warm. Approximately 12-24 hours later, the eggs will hatch. Use a medium sized dropper to pull up the brine. They tend to group together around the warmest part, which is the area touching the light bulb, making collection very easy. By not needing to filter out the brine, you may keep a live supply of food for fry for about 5-7 days before needing to make a fresh batch. Each time you pull the water from the hatchery, you may replace that water with tank water. This seems to aid in the survival of the brine. Be sure that you do not reuse the water to hatch the eggs!!! The water will start to smell as the brine dies off and you do not want to be feeding that to your fry.
  13. Congrats hun please tell us about these guys they look so wonderful View attachment: picoful.jpg
  14. Sure Ghost shrimps help but the problem is that goldfish will eat them really fast.... Rams http://www.aqualandpetsplus.com/Bug,%20S90.jpg Brown algae is do to Diatoms in the water or Silicons, this is normal in most water systems, there is a way to deal with this with out chems..... Phosarbe in the filtration system.... there are other ways of doing it and that is a planted tank but that takes time, money and lighting to deal with it and sometimes it can be more troublesome..... Also high amounts of nitrates can cause this normally tanks over the 30ppm mark will start to grow it, also to much lighting can do it too, or to much natural sunlight. You need to look at all aspects of your tank to see what is going on, its not easy to find out why, just need to do alittle research first....
  15. http://www.thetropicaltank.co.uk/algae.htm Read up on it....
  16. Congrats hun please tell me about this guy View attachment: coyoteuglypico.jpg
  17. Melanophore Migration. Break down of terms thanks to Merriam-Webster?s dictionary: Melanophore - a melanin-containing cell especially of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Melanin - a dark brown or black, animal or plant pigment. Migration ? (in this case) to change position in an organism or substance. Science bit: Within the (melanin) cell resides thousands of granules of pigment. This is how fish and more commonly amphibians change color to evade predators. They are stimulated by adrenalin; migrate to the center of the cell, and thus lightening the color of the skin tissue. The cell can also disperse the pigment making a darker coloration. The pigments can also be agitated by other chemicals in the body. Black Pigment cells (ormelanophores) respond to the presence of Leukine (a chemical used to attract fibroblasts, the cells used to repair damaged tissue.) Consequently the containing cell goes black, rather than just darker or lighter when the pigment migrates. Symptoms: Often a paling of the skin followed by black patches on body, usually on back or sides of fish. Photo: ( Common Goldfish with Melanophore Migration, a week after black spots first began to show.) Common context: ? On bringing a goldfish home from the LFS. ? After replacing a filter suspected of poor efficiency. ? After adding medication that does not suit the fish. Cause: Usually from a chemical or traumatic irritant or injury, due to: ? An ammonia surge (irritation) ? low pH (irritation) ? Fluke infestation (trauma) ? Ick or costia infection (trauma) ? Certain Medications (irritation). I.e. If you bring a fish home from the LFS that has been kept in poor water conditions, and your tank water is far better, the black spots will appear as the fish heals. Time frame: Black spots come up over a period of 1-2 weeks, and after approx 7 days begin to fade, returning the fish to its normal color. The black coloring appears as the fish heals, so its appearance is normally a sign that conditions have improved. Within 3 to 6 weeks the fish should be returned to normal coloration. Treatment Check water quality. Make sure fish appear active and bright. Fins should be clear and dorsal's raised. If all these areas are acceptable, then you just have to wait for the black spots to fade as the fish heals. If the colored areas are depressed or raised you may also be dealing with a bacterial infection or other problems, and further diagnosis is needed. "Podded_Pea"
  18. As we were talking about last night, this is the website for the list of plants. On this site it will show you the kind of plant, light requirements, substrate and such....Great place to help you find a plant you want. http://www.tropica.com/en/plants/plant-list-a-z.aspx
  19. Live plants provide extra O2 to the tank and look more natural, but you have to maintain them to keep them growing, also they provide food for the goldfish if the like the plants. Live plants will use up the nitrates in the tank that the goldfish produce and will help keep the levels of waste down, this doesn't mean you don't need to do water changes though. Fake plants are allot easier to take care of, unless you have allot of algae in the tank, in that case the fake plants will get covered in algae fast. The interesting thing about plants is trying to find ones that goldfish wont eat. some goldfish will eat any plant you place in there others don't bother plants. You can add plants in an already existing tank, most of my tanks I have substrate to them, but the lower easier to take care of plants listed on this site don't really need a special kind of substrate.
  20. http://www.fishsempai.com/catalog.asp?category=6
  21. This is an artical that Emma has writen, This is in a text format so that you can Print it out http://www.kokosgoldfish.com/KeepingGoldfish.doc KEEPING GOLDFISH: A BRIEF GUIDE FOR NEW OWNERS INTRODUCTION Although goldfish are easy fish to keep, they do have some specific requirements and need careful attention if they are to be healthy and happy. The information below will give you enough information to start off. It is not very detailed but is enough to keep your pet alive, healthy and content. Feel free to print it out or save it ? whatever is helpful to you. SECTION 1: WHAT THINGS DO I NEED TO KEEP GOLDFISH? A TANK. It doesn?t matter if it is plastic or glass but it must be a proper tank - bowls are completely unsuitable for goldfish no matter what the pet store tells you! SIZE OF TANK: Fancy goldfish (round bodies, twin tails) need tanks which allow at least 10 US gallons (8 UK gallons) per fish. Common, comet or shubunkin goldfish however (long bodies, single tails) need at least 20 US gallons (15 UK gallons) per fish as they are much larger and faster fish. This size rule applies regardless of how old or big the fish are, e.g. three 1-inch goldfish need a 30-gallon tank just as much as three 6-inch goldfish. You can keep them in a smaller tank when they are very young but they will quickly outgrow it and water quality will always be a struggle to maintain so you will soon have to upgrade. This is time-consuming and expensive. The main reason for this large space requirement is that goldfish are particularly messy creatures which produce large amounts of wastes, far more than most tropical fish. These wastes can very quickly poison a small volume of water, whereas a large amount of water dilutes them and make it much easier to keep the tank clean, safe and stable. The second reason is that goldfish need lots of space to achieve their full growth and lifespan. Goldfish can grow well over a foot long and live for more than 20 years if cared for well. However, if kept in cramped unhealthy conditions their growth is stunted and they become very prone to diseases and weakness. These unfortunate fish die young. SHAPE OF TANK: Goldfish tanks need a big surface area for good oxygenation, so a basic rectangular shape is best. Avoid tall, narrow, or oddly shaped tanks, such as those like two towers with connecting tunnels. Always fill a new tank and examine it very carefully first for any leaks or cracks before you trust it with your precious fish. (NB: the currently popular globe-shaped tanks called Bi-Orbs are just about big enough to hold ONE fancy goldfish). POSITIONING THE TANK: Place the tank out of direct sunlight, away from direct heat and on a surface definitely strong enough to take its weight; a specially designed stand from the fish store is safest. Don?t place it where the fish will be constantly startled by noise and movement or jolted by passing people. Site it close to a power supply (you will need 2-4 sockets) and to a water supply, as you don?t want to be lugging heavy buckets upstairs every week! PREPARING THE TANK: When you first set up your tank, don?t put any fish in it for at least a week. Put in the substrate, plants and ornaments, fill it up, turn on the filter, air supply and light and let it run like that. After a week, when the water is completely clear, the temperature has levelled out and you are satisfied that all the equipment is functioning properly, you can add fish. ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT: Your tank MUST have the following to keep your goldfish safe and healthy: 1. LID / HOOD. Goldfish have been known to make fatal jumps out of open-topped tanks, plus air-borne pollutants such as cleaning sprays, smoke or cooking fumes can poison them, so keep the tank covered. 2. FILTER. Filters remove wastes and chemicals from the water, keeping it clean. Without one, the water will become foul very quickly so this is a ?must-have? piece of equipment. There are several types available: - under-gravel filter (or UGF for short) - sponge filter - internal power filter - external canister filter - hang-on-back (HOB) filter. All of these work well, but do ensure the filter is the right size for the tank, i.e. if you have a 40 gallon tank, choose a filter big enough to handle this size or ideally even more; extra filtration is a very good idea where goldfish are concerned. 3. AIR SUPPLY. Yes, goldfish do breathe, but unlike us they breathe oxygen dissolved in water, not atmospheric air. Water is only oxygenated at the surface so plenty of bubbles and splashing here is essential. Many filters have a built-in air supply feature, but if yours does not then you need an airpump, a length of airline tubing and an airstone or bubble wand. If you ever notice your fish gasping at the surface it is most likely because they are not getting enough oxygen so increase the air supply immediately. The same goes if the tank temperature rises above 75F, as warm water holds much less oxygen than cold. 4. CLEAN DECHLORINATED WATER. The chlorine and other additives in drinking water are highly toxic to fish so NEVER PUT UNTREATED TAP WATER INTO THE TANK! You first need to treat the water using a de-chlorinator (also sometimes called a water conditioner). Make sure the brand you pick removes chlorine AND chloramine, and always use it whenever you add new water to the tank. NB: if using well-water then have it tested first for heavy metals and other dissolved substances; some can be very toxic to fish. 5. SOMEWHERE TO HIDE. Goldfish are generally confident and friendly fish, but they do appreciate having something to hide behind if they get frightened. In a completely bare tank the fish may hover head down in the corners because it feels exposed and vulnerable. A hiding place can be anything: a real or plastic plant, a rock, a piece of driftwood or an ornament. 6. FOOD. Goldfish are omnivores and therefore need both meaty and veggie foods. A varied diet, which ensures they get all the proteins, fats, fibre, vitamins and minerals they need, is essential; a constant diet of generic goldfish flakes just isn?t enough. There are a number of excellent foods available: Hikari, Pro-Gold and Tetra are all very good brands. Feeding is explained in more detail later. 7. BUCKETS for water changes (unless you have a sink or toilet handy into which you can directly drain tank water). Water changes are messy affairs; don?t imagine you can just scoop a little water out and put some back! You?ll be moving around gallons of it every week. Because household detergents are lethal to fish, get the fish a new bucket of their own and clearly label it for tank use only. NB: NEVER use soap or detergents to clean the tank or equipment and don?t wash your hands with soap before touching / feeding the fish. 8. GRAVEL SIPHON to clean the gunk off the bottom of the tank. This looks like a round clear plastic tube with a length of flexible plastic hose attached, and is very cheap to buy. Gravel cleaning is explained later. 9. WATER TESTING KITS. There are four main substances which you absolutely MUST monitor regularly: ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH. These substances are always present and are fundamental to the way a fish tank works (this is explained in ?Cycling?, below). However, they are lethal to your fish if they rise above certain levels so you need to measure them regularly. You will need these kits immediately, i.e. on the very first day the fish go into the tank. There are several different sorts available; the main ones are dip strips, liquid reagents and tablets. The liquid reagent kits are the most accurate and are very easy to use. Aquarium Pharmaceuticals does a good range. 10. DECHLORINATOR (water conditioner) to remove chlorine from your tap water as mentioned above. 11. NET for catching the fish or scooping things out of the tank. Make sure the net you buy is at least twice the size of your largest fish, or they can be hurt when you capture them in it. As an alternative to a net, you can use a large clean plastic pot (like a yoghurt pot) for catching your fish. NON-ESSENTIAL THINGS YOU MAY FIND USEFUL: 1. LIGHT. Providing artificial lighting in the tank is not essential but it helps you enjoy your pets in the evening and lets you grow plants. However, if you do have tank lights then you must switch them off at night. Goldfish need a natural day-night rhythm the same as you do. Only ever use lighting designed specifically for aquarium use, NEVER ordinary electric lights because of the risk of electrocution. Many tank hoods now come equipped with built-in lighting. 2. SUBSTRATE. This is whatever you use to cover the bottom of the tank, usually some gravel or pebbles. It isn?t necessary to have substrate (and many goldfish keepers prefer not to) but your fish will enjoy rooting through it and it helps if you want to grow plants. The best substrates for goldfish are fine-grade gravel, large pebbles or rounded glass nuggets. DON?T use the following as substrates however: sand, glass grit, medium-grade gravel, crushed coral or seashells, as these can all cause serious problems. You need to clean the substrate weekly because dropped food and fish wastes accumulate in it (the cleaning process is explained below). 3. ORNAMENTS/PLANTS. It doesn?t actually matter how you decorate the tank: a natural piece of wood or rock with real plants, or a fluorescent castle sitting on multicoloured gravel are equally good from a fish?s point of view! It?s down to your personal taste. However, avoid any hollow ornaments as these cause health problems; if you must have one, clean it out very thoroughly once a week. Move large or heavy ornaments and clean underneath them regularly, as toxic bacteria can build up there. Goldfish do eat plants so if you buy real ones be prepared for them to be nibbled! Java Fern or Java Moss are the only plants they usually won?t eat and these also grow well in most conditions, so are ideal for beginners. Finally, NEVER put untreated wood, leaves or anything else which might decay into the tank as they will cause major problems. Similarly, don?t put in stones picked up outdoors as they may affect your water chemistry, or put in any ornaments which are not actually designed for aquariums as they may be toxic. 10. THERMOMETER. A tank thermometer is very useful, especially if you live somewhere that has very hot summers or very cold winters. Goldfish prefer a temperature of between 65F and 75F. Below 50F they will go into a form of hibernation and above 85F they will begin to suffer. 11. ALGAE-SCRAPER. This is definitely the easiest and quickest way of removing unsightly algae from the tank walls. 12. HEATER. Goldfish are coldwater fish, so average room temperature is fine for them ordinarily and a heater is not needed. But you might consider getting one if your tank gets very cold in winter or the temperature fluctuates greatly between day and night, or to treat some diseases. If you do get one, then also get a heater guard to avoid burns. SECTION 2: ADDING THE FISH! Choosing new goldfish is enormously fun, but there are a few golden rules of successful stocking: 1. Only choose fish which are healthy, alert and swimming well. If there is any sign of disease or injury in the pet store tanks ? even if the fish you choose doesn't seem to be affected - don?t buy any. When you are more experienced at fishkeeping then you can take home the ?rescues?. 2. Only get 1 or 2 fish at a time, e.g. if you have a 50 gallon tank don?t put in 5 fish at once, just get 1 or 2 to start with and then gradually add the rest over the next few weeks. This prevents the tank becoming overloaded with dangerous wastes all at once (see Cycling). 3. If you have an established tank with fish already in it, put new arrivals in a separate tank for at least 2-4 weeks before adding them to the main tank. They may well be carrying diseases with them and you do not want to infect your whole population. 4. Gradually acclimatise the fish to the new water. The temperature and chemical composition of the water the fish came from will be vastly different to your own water supply, so a sudden introduction to it will stress the fish very badly, (just imagine how comfortable you?d feel if I suddenly transported you from a tropical beach to the top of Mount Everest!). Instead, gently pour the new fish and its travelling water into a separate container which holds at least 1.5 gallons (a bucket or big plastic box is ideal), making sure there is enough water to cover the fish completely. Now add half a cupful of water from your tank to the container every 5 minutes. By the time you have poured in half a gallon of water the fish will be completely acclimatised to the new temperature and chemistry. Net it out of the container and place it gently into the new tank. Throw away the water in the container ? DON?T pour it into your tank as pet store water often harbours diseases and parasites. 4. Give your fish time to get used to its new surroundings. Leave the tank lights off for the first day, keep movement and noise round the tank to a minimum and ensure that it has somewhere in the tank to hide. It will come out and begin exploring when it feels more confident. It is also best not to feed it on the first day. SECTION 3: WHAT COMES NEXT? 1. CYCLING THE TANK Fish expel solid wastes and liquid ammonia ? lots of it! The solid wastes decompose and also release ammonia. Ammonia is highly poisonous and can very quickly accumulate to lethal levels. You can?t see it, touch it or smell it however, and for this reason it is sometimes called ?the silent killer?. However, there are good bacteria living in the filter which convert ammonia into another substance: nitr*I*te. Nitrite is also poisonous to fish, but a different set of bacteria convert it into yet another substance: nitr*A*te. No bacteria will convert nitrate, but this is only harmful in very high concentrations and is easily kept in check by weekly water changes. Fish = ammonia = nitrite = nitrate = removal: this is the ?cycle? of the tank. This all sounds great, but when you set up a brand-new tank there are none of these good bacteria to covert the ammonia and nitrite, so the levels build up and the water quickly becomes toxic. ?Cycling the tank? is therefore the first job of a new tank owner. It simply means the process of growing a colony of bacteria to convert all the ammonia and nitrite and keep the water safe for your fish. Because of the extreme toxicity of ammonia and nitrite, cycling the tank properly is absolutely vital. It takes about a month for a new tank to cycle. During the first 2 weeks the levels of ammonia and nitrite will rise and during the second two weeks they will fall. After the fourth week, no ammonia or nitrite will be present, only nitrates, which means the bacteria have grown and the cycle is now working. However, while these bacteria are building up, obviously there are not enough of them to convert all the ammonia and nitrite, and therefore you need to physically protect your fish by performing regular water changes to keep the levels low. (Incidentally, you don?t need to add any bacteria to the water - they naturally appear on their own. If you do want to help the cycle along however, the only product which does this is called Bio-Spira by Marine Labs). This is how to cycle a tank: Day 1: Test the water for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate using your test kits, once in the morning and ideally once again in the evening. If you find either ammonia or nitrite present above 1.0 ppm, change enough water to get the levels down to between 0.5 and 1.0 ppm. If they are already at this level however then you don?t need to change any water. Day 2: Repeat. Continue with this process every single day until absolutely no ammonia or nitrites are present and only nitrates are seen. And that?s it ? you?ve cycled the tank. Easy, isn?t it?! All the substances and processes sound complicated, but actually dealing with them is very easy as long as you are attentive and vigilant and willing to lug around buckets of water frequently. Once you have successfully cycled the tank then you only need do tests and water changes once a week. POINTS TO NOTE ABOUT CYCLING: 1. The cycling process may take three weeks or it may take six: each tank varies a little. About a month is usual though. If your tank is still not cycled after 6 weeks then something is wrong: these are common problems to check for: - too many fish in too small a tank - overfeeding - something rotting in the tank (e.g. a plant or some food buried in the gravel) - the filter is inadequate for the size of tank or not working properly - inadequate aeration (the bacteria need oxygen too) - the pH is too high or too low - the temperature is too high or too low - the water is not dechlorinated 2. The amount of water you change during cycling will vary: some days it might be 50% or even 80% of the total volume, other days only 10% or even none at all. NEVER assume the water is safe after a water change however ? always test it again to make sure the levels really have gone down far enough. If they haven?t, then change more water and test again... and again if necessary. 3. Don?t be tempted to change enormous quantities of water to try and keep the ammonia and nitrites at zero all the time; you must leave some in the tank otherwise the bacteria will not build up and the tank will never cycle. Remember: between 0.5 and 1.0 is best. Don?t clean your substrate too thoroughly either as bacteria grow there as well as in the filter. 4. Feed your fish extremely sparingly during cycling as the more food you put in, the more ammonia builds up. Only feed once a day or even only every other day, and only as much as they will eat within two minutes. Check that no food gets left uneaten as it will rot and cause the ammonia to rise. 5. If you ever add more fish to the tank, change all the water at once, remove or change all the substrate or change the filter media (which you should never need to do if you clean it gently in old tank water once a month or so) then be aware your tank may undergo another cycle ? test and check. 2. GENERAL CARE AND MAINTENANCE TANK CLEANING. As mentioned, goldfish are very messy fish so their tank needs thorough cleaning, ideally once a week (or if you really cannot manage this then once every other week). The fish should stay in the tank while you clean it, but be careful not to trap them with the siphon or pour new water heavily onto them. This is how to clean a tank: 1. Switch off the filter, light and heater if you have one, and remove the tank hood. Spread out an old towel or some absorbent paper nearby to catch water draining from the plants and ornaments when you lift them out. Remove these from the tank (you don?t have to remove live plants however, only plastic ones) and wipe them clean with your sponge. Any hollow ornaments should be scrubbed out very well with hot water. Leave these out to air-dry while you finish cleaning the tank. 2. Wipe the algae off the tank walls and ornaments using an algae scraper or a sponge. You can however leave some on the back and/or side walls to provide food for your goldfish if you wish. Wipe the hood and/or light if these are coated with algae or gunk. If there was a lot of algae the tank water will look quite murky by now but don?t worry ? this is normal. 3. Next, clean out the poop and old food on the tank bottom with your gravel siphon. You stick the round tube in the tank, suck on the end of the attached hose to start the siphon movement and quickly put that end in a bucket or sink to allow the dirty water to drain out. Move the tube up and down and around in the gravel, making sure you get right down to the tank bottom. Both the gravel and wastes will be sucked up into the tube, but the heavy gravel falls back down and the lighter wastes flow out into your bucket. It?s a clever thing! Gradually work from one end of the tank to the other, making sure every area is thoroughly ?vacuumed?. Even if you don?t have any gravel you still need to clean the bottom of the tank and the gravel siphon is still the easiest way of doing this. The siphoning process removes water as well as wastes so the gravel clean actually forms part of your water change, which is the next step. 4. Change the water. Goldfish tanks need 30 - 40% of the water changed weekly to keep the nitrate level down. You may find in fact that the gravel clean has removed enough water already, but if more is needed then drain any further water out by just holding the gravel siphon in the tank. Then fill the tank back up with clean fresh water, taking care not to pour it in so fast that you blow the fish or gravel around! Remember the following key rules when you replace any water: - it must be the same temperature as in the tank. To test, simply put your hands in the new water and tank water at the same time. Does it feel exactly the same? If yes, that?s good enough. If you can?t do this (e.g. if your water supply is too far away) then use a tank thermometer to check. - it must be dechlorinated - it must be the same pH as in the tank (discussed in more detail later). 4. Re-arrange the tank d?cor. Smooth the substrate with your hand, re-arrange the ornaments and plants, replace the hood, switch on the light, filter and heater and check they are all working properly. Make sure the fish have settled down. NB: if you have a sponge filter or an internal power filter, it is a good idea to gently rinse out the sponges in some old tank water (never tap water!) as part of your weekly routine. Don?t scrub them or you?ll lose the bacteria and affect the cycle. Just very gently squeeze most of the dirt out, and don?t allow the sponges to dry out as this will kill the bacteria. Put them back in the tank or filter immediately after cleaning. WATER QUALITY. Yes, we?ve already talked a bit about water quality so you now know that ammonia and nitrite must not be present and nitrates ought to be kept down by weekly changes (it is best if these are always below 20 ppm). However, there are a couple of other crucial water quality factors which you must keep an eye on: PH (ACIDITY / ALKALINITY). All fish have a preferred pH level: some like acid conditions (below 7 on the pH scale) and others like alkaline conditions (above 7 on the pH scale). Goldfish prefer a pH of between 7.0 and 7.6, which is neutral to slightly alkaline. They will happily adapt to a pH outside this range but NOT lower than 6.5 or higher than 8.5, as these levels are getting dangerous. More importantly, the pH must be completely steady, i.e. never rise and fall. A pH which rises and drops sharply is far worse than one which is outside the fish?s preferred range but holds steady; the fish will become very distressed in changing pH levels. pH steadiness is directly related to water hardness. HARDNESS: All water contains various dissolved minerals and salts and it is these that regulate the pH. Broadly speaking, hard water has a high level of these minerals and soft water a low level; hard water holds the pH level steady and is more alkaline, while soft water does not hold the pH steady and is more acidic. When you first set up your tank, take a sample of your water to your local fish store and ask them to test the hardness (the GH - or General Hardness - and KH - the Carbonate Hardness) for you. If your water is reasonably hard (the KH is over 125) and the pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, then you need do nothing at all ? this is ideal water. If the water is soft and the KH is low (below 100) however, then you will need to artificially ?harden? it to hold the pH steady. If the KH is very high (over 350) and the water very alkaline then you will need to artificially soften it to lower the pH. You can artificially harden water very easily with ordinary baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). This process is called ?buffering? the water. Add the soda to the tank, a teaspoonful at a time and keep measuring with your pH kit until it shows a pH of about 7.4 - 7.6. Use a KH kit to check that the KH is over 80, ideally over 100. The pH will now remain steady until your next weekly water change, at which time you?ll need add a little more soda to compensate for however much is lost in the change. You can also add crushed oyster shells or crushed coral to the filter; this achieves the same effect and is longer-lasting than baking soda. Softening very hard or alkaline water is not so easy. Putting peat moss into the filter will remove some minerals and add acid. You will need to monitor the pH very carefully and replace the moss as it loses its efficiency. Other alternatives are to buy a reverse osmosis kit - ask your pet store for advice on this as they can be very expensive ? or to collect rainwater and mix this with your tap water. You should test the pH and KH every week as part of your cleaning and maintenance routine to make sure that all is well. If you notice any change in the pH, then immediately examine the tank to find out why. These are some common causes of pH changes: - Rock ornament. Some rocks, such as chalk, limestone, tufa or marble release chemicals into the water which causes the pH to rise. You should never keep these rocks in the tank. - Driftwood ornament. Driftwood (also sometimes called bog wood or jati wood) can lower pH. It is not recommended for tanks with an already low pH. - High nitrates or rotting food, plants or fish: organic decay processes produce acid, which can lower pH. - Water change: if the pH from your water supply is different to that in your tank (because it has a low buffering capacity or high carbon dioxide content) the pH can swing drastically. Make sure this doesn?t happen by buffering the water before it goes in the tank, as described above. - Carbon dioxide in the water. Some water contains a lot of carbon dioxide, which produces carbonic acid and lowers pH. To test if CO2 is the cause of your pH fluctuations, pour a small amount of tap water gently into a bottle and test the pH. Now shake the dickens out of the water in the bottle! Test the pH again: if it has risen, then CO2 is the cause of the pH changes. You will need to thoroughly aerate / agitate any new water in future to dissipate the CO2 and get the pH level up before adding it to the tank. 3. FEEDING You can really have some fun with your goldfish at feeding time! However, it is very easy to overfeed and this can lead to serious health problems. At most, goldfish should only be fed twice a day and only what they can consume within TWO minutes, or three times a day but only what they can consume within ONE minute. Make sure that no food is left sitting on the bottom or floating after feeding time is up ? remove any excess. It doesn?t seem like much food, but they only have tiny tummies! Plus, they sift algae and other invisible organisms from the tank water all day, which supplements their diet. Some breeds of goldfish, such as moors, telescopes, bubble-eyes or celestials, do not have very good eyesight so make sure they get a fair share of the food. If you see that some of your fish are missing out at mealtimes, then you can hand-feed them. To do this, simply hold a little food between your finger and thumb and offer it to them just below the surface. Occasional hand-feeding is in fact good for all your fish because it helps build trust between you and them and is a very enjoyable form of interaction. Goldfish need a varied diet and happily there are many foods available for them. Here are some suggestions, most of which should be available from your local fish store: - flakes, either complete food or spirulina (algae) flakes - pellets (either sinking or floating, although sinking are much better) - freeze-dried live foods, such as bloodworms, daphnia or shrimp - frozen live foods, such as bloodworms, brine shrimp, mosquito larvae or daphnia - gelled live foods Keep a selection of three or four different types to ensure your goldfish is getting a healthy balanced diet. It also gives them a bit of interest to have a different food each day ? they look forward to it. However, most foods have a shelf-life, e.g. dry flakes and pellets should not be kept longer than 3 months, maximum. It is best to buy the smallest sized containers of food and use these up quickly, replacing them regularly with fresh food. With dry food such as flake and pellets, always soak it first in a little tank water before you feed. These foods swell when they touch water; it is much better for the fish to eat them soft and already swelled than for them to swallow dry, hard food which later swells in their stomachs and causes problems. In addition to bought foods, you can also feed your goldfish with a variety of vegetables and fruits; most enjoy peas, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, lettuce, cucumber, tomato, zucchini, eggplant, orange or lime slices, strawberries, raspberries, banana, peaches and even cherries. With the vegetables, blanch them briefly first in boiling water before feeding as otherwise they will be too tough for the fish to chew. It is ideal to feed vegetables at least once a week, but only feed fruit occasionally as a treat as it contains too much sugar. I find it best to feed vegetables mushed into small mouth-sized pieces, and fruit as whole chunks dropped into the tank which the fish can suck at for a couple of hours, but do experiment and find out what your fish prefer. Never feed your goldfish bread, biscuit or cracker crumbs, rice or potato. Their digestive systems do not deal well with carbohydrates so these foods cause health problems. 4. GENERAL HEALTH TOUCHING THE FISH: You should avoid touching or stroking your goldfish, even if it enjoys being petted (some fish do). Fish have a protective slime-coat over their bodies which helps keep out diseases and if you touch them it removes this coating and leaves the fish much more vulnerable to problems. NB: if you do ever touch your fish wash your hands thoroughly afterwards as occasionally fish diseases can affect humans. DISEASE AND INJURIES: As long as the fish are in the right-size tank, the water quality is excellent and they are not overfed or stressed, your fish should remain generally very healthy. However, diseases or injuries occur from time to time in even the best-run tanks, so check your fish every day and make sure all is well. If one of your fish appears ill or injured, it is best to isolate it quickly in a separate tank or other suitable container with its own filter and air supply. This prevents disease spreading to the other fish and also gives the afflicted one peace and quiet in which to recover. If your fish does become ill, there are numerous medications available in most fish stores and the temptation is to turn to these straightaway. However, there are some golden rules about medicating fish: Always be absolutely certain what disease the fish has before you attempt to treat it; some fish diseases can be hard to diagnose accurately and treating with the wrong medication can make problems much worse. Get help with a diagnosis first. Don?t medicate unless it is absolutely essential. Several diseases, such as finrot, can be cured in the early stages simply by keeping very clean water, increasing the temperature and adding a small amount of salt to the tank. Fish medications often include very unpleasant chemicals which stress the fish and can crash the cycle, so don?t make a problem into a disaster by panicking and pouring medications in unnecessarily. Never mix medications; this can cause bad side effects. If one medication is present in the tank and you want to use another, then put activated carbon in the filter first for at least 24 hours to clean the previous medication out and/or do a series of water changes. Take out any carbon in the filter before adding medications otherwise it will simply remove them from the water. If possible, add medications to a separate ?hospital? tank rather than the main tank (except in cases of parasites or very contagious diseases when the main tank should be treated). There is no need to stress all the fish if not all of them are ill. Test the water quality every day: many medications attack the bacteria in the filter as well as the disease, causing the cycle to crash. If this happens, finish the course of medication but treat the tank as a cycling tank (i.e. daily tests and water changes). SECTION 4: REGULAR ROUTINES It is very hard at first to know what to do and when! There seems to be so much to think about: water, food, cleaning, filter, pH etc. Actually, once you get into a set routine it is very easy to care for your goldfish. Below is a suggested routine (for a cycled tank) which should be more than enough to avoid most problems and enjoy your fish. DAILY: Morning: Switch tank lights on. Check all fish to make sure they are healthy, swimming well, etc. Feed flake or pellet food. Evening: Check fish all OK. Feed frozen, dried or gelled food, or vegetable food. Switch tank lights off last thing. WEEKLY: Test ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH. If the test results are all OK go through your normal cleaning routine (described in ?cleaning? above). Spend some time watching your fish to make sure all are healthy, active and behaving normally. If the test results are NOT right however, e.g. the ammonia level has risen, then immediately perform a water change large enough to bring ammonia / nitrite down under 0.5, or add baking soda to buffer the pH, or whatever is required. Then search out the actual reason for the poor water quality and put it right. MONTHLY: Perform a 50% water change. Remove sponge filter media if using this and wash it out gently in old tank water (never tap water!) and replace. Replace any carbon filter media being used and clean the impeller of the filter if it has one. Check all equipment is functioning properly. If an undergravel filter is being used, clean out the gunk from under the plate by putting the siphon down the uplift tube. YEARLY: Replace the lighting (neon tubes lose their effectiveness after a while, even if they still look as bright). Replace the rubber diaphragm in the airpump if you have one. And that?s it! You are now a professional fish-keeper - well done! SECTION 5: TROUBLE-SHOOTING AND FAQ?S: WHY....? IS THE WATER CLOUDY? Cloudy water often occurs during cycling while the tank settles down or if you disturb the substrate a great deal during cleaning. It should clear within a few hours or days, but adding carbon to your filter can hasten this process. If the tank is cycled, however, then persistent cloudiness can indicate a bacterial bloom brought on by too many nutrients in the water. Cut down on feeding, clean the gravel and filter sponges, and do more regular water changes. Adding live plants can also help. IS THE WATER GREEN? Algae (tiny single-celled creatures) will grow anywhere containing water, light and nutrients. All tanks have some algae ? it is normal - but green water means there is far too much of it. Move the tank out of sunlight and add some live plants to help remove the nutrients. Perform more water changes and ensure you are not overfeeding and that the filter is working properly. IS THERE BROWN OR GREEN STUFF IN THE TANK? Algae again, I?m afraid. All tanks have it and in fact some of it will be eaten with relish by your fish, but the only way to get rid of it is to keep wiping it off regularly. Lots of live plants will help keep it down too. IS MY FISH RACING ROUND THE TANK? Racing round the tank is not normal; goldfish usually swim with a steady grace, except when they are spawning (the fish will be chasing each other, if this is the case). It usually indicates problems with the water quality - did you remember to dechlorinate? Test your water for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH and perform a water change immediately or buffer the pH, whichever is appropriate. If the fish still races then it has a health problem ? ask on here for advice. IS MY FISH SITTING ON THE BOTTOM? It may well be asleep or resting. Fish sleep on and off during the day and night, but they cannot close their eyes so you may not be aware at first that a fish is asleep. Try going up to the glass and making some movements ? a healthy fish will come up shortly to investigate, an unwell fish will stay on the bottom. Fish that are ill will stay on the bottom for long periods. DOES MY FISH ALWAYS BEG ME FOR FOOD? In the wild, goldfish are constantly searching for food because they never know where their next meal might be coming from. It is therefore instinctive for them to keep asking for it even when they are not really hungry. They will beg you for food all day if you?re near them, but you certainly should not feed them more than 2-3 times a day. If they look particularly pleading you can occasionally give them a small piece of fruit or vegetable as a treat in addition to their regular meals, but no more than that. IS MY FISH ALWAYS HIDING? It may be feeling nervous. Is there somewhere in the tank for it to hide? Is there a lot of noise or movement going on by the tank? Alternatively it may be feeling unwell ? check the water parameters and examine the fish closely for signs of disease. IS MY FISH RUBBING ITSELF ON THE ORNAMENTS OR SUBSTRATE? A fish rubbing or flicking itself on things in the tank has irritated or painful skin. First test your water ? have the ammonia or nitrite risen or the pH changed? If the tests are OK then it may well have a parasite problem. IS MY FISH CHANGING COLOUR? Many goldfish change colour gradually to some extent as they grow older ? this is natural - but sudden or profound changes of colour indicate something is wrong: red or black patches indicate ammonia burns, a white film indicates the pH has gone severely askew, paleness all over (including gills, eyes and inside the mouth) may indicate anaemia, dots or splotches of odd colour can indicate fungus or parasites. Ask for help with a diagnosis. IS MY FISH CHASING OTHER FISH? You may have a bit of a bully who wants to protect his food or territory, or the fish may be spawning. Sometimes common, comet or shubunkin goldfish (slim shape, single tails) will chase and/or nip at fancy goldfish (rounder, twin-tailed) because the fancies cannot swim as quickly. There is little you can do to stop a bullying fish, except isolate it from the others with a tank divider or separate tank. DOES MY FISH HIDE WHEN I TURN ON THE LIGHT? Quite simply, it is painfully dazzled. Goldfish cannot close their eyes remember, so it has no alternative but to rush down and try to hide its eyes until they adjust to the light. It helps to turn a nearby room light on a few minutes before turning on the main tank lights so the fish?s eyes can adjust more comfortably. IS MY FISH FLOATING / UPSIDE DOWN / SWIMMING AWKWARDLY? Fish have an air-filled organ in their bodies called the swim bladder. By regulating the pressure within this, the fish is able to remain upright and move up and down in the tank. If this because obstructed or diseased however, the fish loses its equilibrium and either floats at the surface (either upright or upside-down), sinks like a stone and/or struggles to swim. This is often caused by constipation, so fast your goldfish for three days and then feed it a pea, de-skinned and mushed, as this acts as a laxative. If this does not work then there may be an internal infection. DOES MY FISH HAVE WHITE SPOTS ON ITS SKIN? There is a common parasite called ich, or whitespot, which commonly attacks fish. If your goldfish develops what looks like grains of salt scattered over its skin, then this is the likely cause. If the dots look more like little tufts of cotton wool, however, then the fish may have fungus or a parasitical infection called columnaris. Seek help with a diagnosis. ARE MY FISH?S FINS RAGGED AND RED-STREAKED? Either the fish has been attacked by another fish, the nitrites are very high or it has a disease called finrot. Keep the water quality perfect and seek a diagnosis. IS MY FISH GASPING AT THE SURFACE? There is insufficient oxygen in the water: increase the oxygenation immediately by turning up the filter flow or adding another airstone, and find the root cause of the problem. Sometimes fish do this when you clean the tank; this is due to the gunk released into the water, so a water-change should cure them quickly. IS MY FISH LYING ON ITS SIDE? A fish that is lying on its side is feeling extremely ill. Check your water parameters first: are they all OK? Any number of diseases can result in this behaviour ? seek a diagnosis quickly. And that?s it! You now know the basics of goldfish keeping and can keep your pet alive, happy and growing. As you acquire more experience you will pick up additional information on the way and may end up being an expert yourself. Please bear in mind though that sometimes, despite the best or most professional care and attention, some goldfish die. We don?t always know why they do. If your fish is obviously feeling ill, then seek help immediately of course, but do NOT blame yourself if it dies because it probably isn?t anything you?ve done wrong. If it is because you did something wrong, however ? if you forgot to dechlorinate the water or over-fed them or didn?t test or change the water frequently enough ? then still do not blame yourself, but do learn from the experience. Look at what went wrong and plan how you will do it differently next time. Even the best fish keepers make mistakes occasionally. Good luck! Writen by "EmmaHJ"
  22. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/AqBizSubWebInde...disnfecnets.htm
  23. Humanely Euthanizing Fish Preferred Method: Clove Oil and Tank Water Method Buy pure clove oil. You can get it at a health food store for under $10 for a ? ounce bottle. Put the fish in a medium sized mixing bowl in his own water from his tank. In a small jar or something with a lid (I use a cleaned out jelly jar) mix the clove oil with tank water. Put the lid on and shake it like crazy over and over until the liquid in it is white. Then pour a little into the mixing bowl with the fish. Swirl it with your hand. The fish might fight it just a little bit and then slow down. Then pour a little more in and swirl again. He should just go to sleep and appear dead. If he doesn't, try a little more of the clove solution, always shaking very well before an addition to the bowl. When he goes to sleep, leave him in the solution for a good 10 minutes and then put him in a small cup or zip-lock baggie and put him in the freezer. Pain free death. Very humane. We should all go so easily. Clove Oil and Vodka DON'T USE!!!! The clove oil and vodka method is often sited as a humane method of fish euthanasia. Clove oil (eugenol) is used as an anesthetic in fish for surgery. The vodka is used to disperse the clove oil in the water. The clove oil/vodka mixture is placed in water and then the fish is added and supposedly dies peacefully. This doesn't work! Use the clove oil and tank water method described above. I believed, after hearing about a Betta struggling and thrashing when placed in the clove oil/vodka bath (IN WATER), that there must be a better way. Other Methods Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS) Another method I was told about is another fish anesthetic called Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS). One gram of TMS in one liter of water makes a bath that will put the fish to death peacefully. I haven?t tried this, so I can?t personally recommend it. Freezer Method An old and still widely used method of fish euthanasia is to place the fish in a container of its own tank water and place it in the freezer. I have done this, but have never been completely comfortable with it. Using a knife Slice the fish right behind the gills. Cut all the way through and take the fish?s head off. Quick and painless, if you can do it. Slamming Net the fish and slam them hard against the floor, a wall or a counter-top. An alternative, and not quite as traumatic to the fish owner would be to place the fish in a bag before slamming. I don?t believe this would work very well with very small fish as their lack of weight may make this method ineffective. In the end, I believe the most humane way to euthanize a fish is with the clove oil and tank water method. I have used it myself and can verify that it is quick, humane and apparently painless.
  24. Koko, I've been meaning start a thread about my recent experience with euthanizing a fish. It was very sad, but in the end, I learned a lot and have decided that I will never euthanize a fish any other way. Here is a submission for Tip of the Month that includes that method along with several others so as to be fair. I'm emailing this to both email addresses just in case. Thanks! Chris (BuddyHolly) Humanely Euthanizing Fish Preferred Method: Clove Oil and Tank Water Method Buy pure clove oil. You can get it at a health food store for under $10 for a ? ounce bottle. Put the fish in a medium sized mixing bowl in his own water from his tank. In a small jar or something with a lid (I use a cleaned out jelly jar) mix the clove oil with tank water. Put the lid on and shake it like crazy over and over until the liquid in it is white. Then pour a little into the mixing bowl with the fish. Swirl it with your hand. The fish might fight it just a little bit and then slow down. Then pour a little more in and swirl again. He should just go to sleep and appear dead. If he doesn't, try a little more of the clove solution, always shaking very well before an addition to the bowl. When he goes to sleep, leave him in the solution for a good 10 minutes and then put him in a small cup or zip-lock baggie and put him in the freezer. Pain free death. Very humane. We should all go so easily. Clove Oil and Vodka DON'T USE!!!! The clove oil and vodka method is often sited as a humane method of fish euthanasia. Clove oil (eugenol) is used as an anesthetic in fish for surgery. The vodka is used to disperse the clove oil in the water. The clove oil/vodka mixture is placed in water and then the fish is added and supposedly dies peacefully. This doesn't work! Use the clove oil and tank water method described above. I believed, after hearing about a betta struggling and thrashing when placed in the clove oil/vodka bath (IN WATER), that there must be a better way. Other Methods Tricaine Methanosulfate (TMS) Another method I was told about is another fish anesthetic called Tricaine Methanosulfate (TMS). One gram of TMS in one liter of water makes a bath that will put the fish to death peacefully. I haven?t tried this, so I can?t personally recommend it. Freezer Method An old and still widely used method of fish euthanasia is to place the fish in a container of its own tank water and place it in the freezer. I have done this, but have never been completely comfortable with it. Using a knife Slice the fish right behind the gills. Cut all the way through and take the fish?s head off. Quick and painless, if you can do it. Slamming Net the fish and slam them hard against the floor, a wall or a countertop. An alternative, and not quite as traumatic to the fish owner would be to place the fish in a bag before slamming. I don?t believe this would work very well with very small fish as their lack of weight may make this method ineffective. In the end, I believe the most humane way to euthanize a fish is with the clove oil and tank water method. I have used it myself and can verify that it is quick, humane and apparently painless.
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